- Volume 8 - Issue 3 - March 2011
- Posted on: 3/8/11
- 14 Comments
- 92229 reads
Omar Al-Nouri, DO, MS and Ross Milner, MD
The diagnosis of May-Thurner syndrome is based on the clinical presentation of left lower extremity swelling and pain in association with radiologic evidence of compression. This being said, diagnosis of May-Thurner syndrome may not always be straightforward. Doppler ultrasound will detect if a DVT is present in the iliac vessels, but is unable to visualize iliac vein compression and spurs. Other diagnostic modalities include helical abdominal computed tomography (CT), CT venography, magnetic resonance venography (MRV), intravenous ultrasound (IVUS) and conventional venography. Kibbe et al11 used abdominal helical CT scanning to determine the incidence of left common iliac vein compression in an asymptomatic population (Figure 2). They found that two-thirds of all patients studied had at least 25% compression of the left iliac vein. The authors concluded that compression of the left iliac vein may be a normal anatomic finding, and that abdominal CT scanning is accurate in determining if left iliac vein compression is present. There are, however, limitations to the use of abdominal CT scanning in determining if iliac vein compression is present. The CT scans were obtained during the arterial phase of the intravenous bolus, which limits the type of vessel reconstruction and analysis that can be performed. CT venography may be used as an effective adjunctive modality when there is a known DVT. Chung et al12 found that CT venography was just as specific and highly sensitive in the diagnosis of DVT compared with ultrasound and accurately delineated venous anatomy and the extent of thrombus present. A limitation of CT venography involves the inability to control for the volume status of the patient, which could lead to overemphasis of the degree of compression of the left iliac vein in a dehydrated patient. The traditional “gold standard” for diagnosis of May-Thurner syndrome is conventional venography, which can be diagnostic and therapeutic when endovascular therapy is used (Figure 3.). Non-invasive imaging methods are being used increasingly to diagnose DVT and iliac compression. The aforementioned imaging modalities may help in planning catheter-directed thrombosis without the initial need for conventional venography. These non-invasive imaging modalities are simple, efficient and cost-effective in diagnosing DVT associated with iliac compression.3
May-Thurner syndrome patients are commonly asymptomatic, and it is therefore unrecognized until symptoms develop. Treatment of symptomatic May-Thurner syndrome has evolved over the years from traditional open repair to less invasive endovascular repair. Treatment is aimed at clearing the thrombus present to prevent post-thrombotic syndrome and to correct the underlying compression of the left iliac vein. Untreated, a significant majority of adults with May-Thurner syndrome and thrombosis develop debilitating post-thrombotic syndrome.13 Historically, several surgical procedures have been used to ameliorate symptoms and correct the underlying compression such as venovenous bypass with autologous vein, creation of a tissue sling to elevate the overriding right iliac artery, retropositioning of the iliac artery and excision of the intraluminal spur with patch venoplasty. Traditional open repair has yielded variable results, and with the advent of endovascular technology and technique, mainstay therapy now includes a combination of surgical and endovascular approaches.